Microphones are components in virtually all audio systems.
Thus, you'll hear about studio microphones for recording, PA microphones for live sound, boom microphones for broadcast or film shoots, instrument microphones which attach directly to guitars or horns, boundary microphones for conference systems, lapel mics for seminars and business meetings, and even headset microphones for telephone call centers. The reason for this diversity is that while all microphones perform the same basic function, they are adapted to a wide variety of different environments and uses.
That said, all microphones have one thing in common: microphones convert a sound wave into an electrical signal in which the voltage and current are proportional to the original sound.
To perform this task microphones use a thin membrane, known as a diaphragm, which mimics the function of the human ear.